Volume 118, Issue 12 p. 1411-1421
Systematic review

Dose–response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA)—a systematic review and meta-analyses

J Patra

J Patra

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Search for more papers by this author
R Bakker

R Bakker

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Search for more papers by this author
H Irving

H Irving

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada

Search for more papers by this author
VWV Jaddoe

VWV Jaddoe

The Generation R Study Group, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Search for more papers by this author
S Malini

S Malini

Department of Community Medicine, MKCG Medical College, Orissa, India

Search for more papers by this author
J Rehm

J Rehm

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, ON, Canada

Technische Universität Dresden, Klinische Psychologie and Psychotherapie, Dresden, Germany

Search for more papers by this author
First published: 06 July 2011
Citations: 364
J Patra, Social and Epidemiological Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 33 Russell Street, Room T-508, Toronto, ON, Canada M5S 2S1. Email [email protected]

Abstract

Please cite this paper as: Patra J, Bakker R, Irving H, Jaddoe V, Malini S, Rehm J. Dose–response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA)—a systematic review and meta-analyses. BJOG2011;118:1411–1421.

Background Descriptions of the effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent.

Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birthweight, preterm birth and small for gestational age (SGA).

Search strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches.

Selection criteria Case–control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included.

Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birthweight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardised protocol. Meta-analyses on dose–response relationships were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data.

Main results Compared with abstainers, the overall dose–response relationships for low birthweight and SGA showed no effect up to 10 g pure alcohol/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth showed no effect up to 18 g pure alcohol/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day); thereafter, the relationship showed a monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for all outcomes.

Conclusions Dose–response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes whereas light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consultations should be initiated.